Number pi = 3.1416 exactly

A New Approach to the Universal Constant “pi”

Attached you will find an original, I would like to believe, research study, concerning «A new approach to the area of a circle» and thus a new approach to the Universal Constant “pi”.

The innovative aspect of the new approach is attributed to avoid the insurmountable

obstacles presented by the intervention of square roots and infinite series when we try to calculate the circumference as the

Upper Limit of the perimeter of a regular Polygon inscribed in the circle, according to the relevant “deceptive”

definition, i.e. sin15o = 1/4 {sqrt(6) – sqrt(2)}.

The New Theory considers the above way as an “impasse”, which makes us to believe that the so derived number

pi’ = 3.14159 2 6535…. is an irrational and trancendental number.

By the new way we approach the area of the circle as the “Lower Limit” of the area of the Superscribed Regular Polygon, coming from the square of side ao = 2R, and we use as main tool the “tangent”, the values of which can be easily calculated, with the desirable accuracy, using as algorithm the formula

tan(2q) = 2tanq / {1-tanq} which defines the circle.

By this method we discover that it is impossible for the Lower Limit of the Superscribed Polygon, to be less than the

Limit 4 * 0.7854 = 3.1416.

More precisely the new method meets the Known number

3.14159 2 6535… and proves that in order to reach this number we have violated the sense of the circumference making the arbitrary assumption that: for very acute angles we can consider that

tanq = 1/2 tan(2q) instead of tanq < 1/2 tan(2q), according to the indisputable formula:

tan(2q) = 2tanq / {1-tanq} -> tanq < 1/2 tan(2q) always

and certainly 2sinq < 2arcq < 2tanq always.

However small the side-chord of the inscribed regular polygon, this chord is less than the respective arc and always there exists a minimum area between the chord and the arc, however great is the number N = 4 * 2n of the sides.

The above observation explains the irrational and trancendental character of the so defined circumference, and why “we can not see” the Upper Limit of an inscribed regular polygon.

On the contrary, through the New Theory, which dares the “transgretion”, the lower Limit of the regular Superscribed polygon “is visible” and can not be other than 3.1416 R2 exactly.

Also, according to the New Theory, the area of the circle is the first real root of the algebraic equation:

X2 – 4X + 2.69674944 = 0, the second root of which is the 4k = m = 0.8584 R2 that is the area of the 4 equal curvilinear triangles, which lie between the circumference and the perimeter of the superscribed square of side ao = 2R, so that: …

The New Transcendental Theory Reveals and Proves the following:


  1. The problem of Number š (as well as the dependent problem of the squaring of the circle) was never a “closed problem”

The circle closes conclusively and perfectly only with the absolute value of š = 3,1416 exactly, which in conjunction with the equally Constant m = 4k   = 0,8584, constitute the two real and unequal roots of the Algebraic Equation of the circle, under the formula:


x2 – (š + m)x + š m = x2 – 4x + 2,69674944 = 0


  1. We did not know neither what the wanted was, nor its nature. The New Transcendental Theory reveals both, by proving that it is the common ratio of:

with the corresponding

so that:


  1. The number m = 0,8584 = 0,81 + 0,0484 = 0,92 + 0,222, as the sum of two squares, leads us to the construction, by means of Ruler and Compass, of the chord (BnC) = R.

The same holds true for the number š = 4 – = 22 – (0,92 + 0,222), as the difference of two squares, which makes possible the construction

of the chord (ABn) = R.

This results to the squaring of the circle, only by means of Ruler and Compass.

Read the book

This article was written by JEFF

One thought on “Number pi = 3.1416 exactly”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *